Urethritis is an inflammation in the wall of the channel of urination can be acute or chronic, caused by disease with viruses or bacteria.
Bacterial urethritis is manifested in the penetration of the urethra organisms, most often sexually. Form of bacterial urethritis can be acute or chronic. It usually progresses with less manifest clinical picture. Patients complain of pain when urinating, burning and itching in the urethra. Note the allocation of scarce, sometimes mucous or purulent.
Primary bacterial urethritis
There are acute and chronic urethritis, caused by bacteria. For acute and nonspecific inflammation differs from the clinical form of gonococcal urethritis. The duration of the incubation period can be different. Local signs of inflammation manifested not so bright. There is pain during urination, itching, burning, and purulent or Muco-purulent discharge, in addition, a small swelling of the mucous membrane in the urethra and the tissues that surround the exterior exit of the urethra.
Continual inflammation of the urethra usually occurs with small symptoms. There is a slight itching, and a burning sensation in the period of urination, scanty mucous discharge with a high resistance to treatment. Short and wide channel emission of urine at girls or women allows the infection to penetrate freely to the bladder, causing cystitis that is diagnosed during ultrasound of the bladder. Regarding men, the chronic form of this disease in some moments is complicated by the colliculites is the inflammation of a combined bump. Seed tubercle represents the location of the output ducts of the prostate or VAS deferens. Inflammation of this organ may be the cause of hemo-sperm or disorders ejaculation men.
Secondary bacterial urethritis
The infectious organism gets to the urethra from a local source of the infection, it may be in the pelvic organs, the bladder, the prostate, seminal vesicles, or may develop during the infectious diseases sore throat, pneumonia. For a secondary non-specific disease characterized by a long latent period. Patients complain about mild pain during urination, a slight discharge from the urethra with mucopurulent character, is stronger pronounced in the morning. In children painful sensations during urination is often absent. In the period of the examination revealed hyperemia and bonding sponges external opening of the urethra.
During the test, the starting portion of urine is not cloudy as usual, contains a large number of leukocytes. In the repeated portion of the number of leukocytes less, and in the third, most often, corresponds to the norm. In order to preliminary determine the nature of the microflora implement direct microscopic analysis detachable urethra. In order to clarify the kind of agent of infection, as well as sensitivity relative to antibacterial drugs implement sowing detachable or flush the urethra.
Gonococcal urethritis referred to venereal diseases. It is transmitted sexually. Often possible and household way of transfer of infection during the use of shared towels, toilet. Household factor infection more common in children. During childbirth also it can be transmitted, if the mother is diagnosed with gonorrhea, the child may develop infection of the conjunctival membrane of the eye. As a result of sexual contact with a carrier of gonorrhoea after 4-6 days appear yellowish-gray purulent discharge when urinating, can also occur painful and burning. When promoting infection up the urethra, the area of inflammation becomes wider, the patient has fever, feels weak and cold. Often the latent period of the disease lasts several weeks. In this case, gonococcal urethritis typically becomes chronic course.
The chronic form of gonorrheal urethritis develops:
- among patients who were not treated or not fully cured acute inflammatory process of the urethra gonococcal etiology;
- among patients who have a weakened immune system;
- during the period involved in the inflammation of the prostate and also the back area of the urethra.
Criteria of cure
After the first 7-10 days after completing the treatment, carried out direct microscopic analysis detachable urethra. When the gonococci are not evident, in progress cumulative provocation: biological, chemical provocation (inserted into the urethra 0.5 R-RA silver nitrate). Even realize mechanical, thermal (heating industriesysteme currents), and finally the provocation of alcohol or fatty foods.
Then every day for three days to analyze the secret of the prostate gland, filament urine or swabs of the urethra. In the absence of cells or gonococci provocation resume after 1 month. After one month spend the third, final control study. When clinical signs are absent, and the gonococcus is no longer detected during planting and examen, the patient is removed from the register.
In the form of gonorrheal urethritis a favorable prognosis is possible only in case of regular and correct treatment. Running more serious cases, they may be accompanied by the formation stickuri the urethra. A clinical picture can join chronic prostatitis, epididimit with subsequent infertility.
Trichomonas urethritis are among the most common infections that are sexually transmitted. Men get infections due to pathogenic microorganisms that are found in the seminal vesicles of the prostate. The infection occurs urinariorum channels. The causative agent of the disease — Trichomonas, pear-shaped bacteria.
Disease chlamydial urethritis is caused by the bacteria — chlamydia. This infection can also affect the respiratory, digestive system, eyes, can cause bronchitis, pneumonia, conjunctivitis.
Chlamydial urethritis usually is sluggish. Inflammation of the urethra in some cases takes place with the defeat of the joints. The diagnostic criterion is the presence in stained scrapings from the urethra semilunar intracellular inclusions.
Develops as a result of mucosal lesions droge-sicut mushrooms. Most often it is a complication of prolonged antibiotic therapy. Proceeds, usually without significant clinical symptoms. There may be a tooth, negligible, burning, slight discharge from the urethra. Treatment is to eliminate the antibiotic, the appointment of vitamins and antifungal drugs.
Prevention of urethritis
To avoid infection you need to avoid unprotected and casual sex, stick to the rules of hygiene, but it is also very important to prevent the entry of bacterial pathogens into the body. And this is very important to treat all chronic and acute diseases, not to run them.
Causes of urethritis
Urethritis can be divided into primary, if the process of filling begins immediately at the channel wall, and the secondary, if the bacterium gets into the channel of the other bodies. Usually the infection gets into the channel, cystitis, prostatitis, pyelonephritis, inflammation of genitals.
First and significant, "bell", which should entail a visit to the doctor will be painful urination and some discomfort.
Infection in the canal of urination during the primary urethritis, as a rule, passes after intercourse. Infection after trauma, catheterization of the bladder. Occasionally come across allergic urethritis.
The disease rarely develops in the absence of an infectious agent (toxic, radiation, allergic urethritis). Often the cause of this disease be injured during a diagnostic or therapeutic procedure (catheterization of the bladder in men, drugs, etc.).
The symptoms of urethritis
The symptoms of gonococcal urethritis
For chronic inflammatory stroke characteristic not bright the severity of symptoms. Patients worried about itching, and slight burning of the urethra. Beginning of urination occurs in parallel with weak pains. Discharge from the urethra is small, Muco-purulent, usually in the morning. The swab shows the presence of gonococci, and the secondary microflora.
In the period of chronic gonorrheal urethritis in the process often involved the ducts of the paraurethral glands. Inflammation makes it more difficult outflow, which leads to blockage of the duct, progression of infiltrates, abscesses, and osmawani cavities. Overall, the patient's condition gets worse, characterized by sharp pain during urination.
Symptoms of Trichomonas urethritis
The first symptoms appear after 2-10 days after contact with the bacteria in the body. But very often patients do not have any special complaints, particularly symptoms of urethritis in women.
Often in men, trichomoniasis continues asymptomatic or causes a very meager symptoms. Patients are often not aware of their disease and spread it among their partners. In 15-20% of cases in the chronic form develops in the prostate, which worsens the patient's condition and difficult to cure.
Typical symptoms will be itching and burning in the urethra, pain during sex, frequent urination. Symptoms may worsen after the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Notably, the complaint in this case can be very diverse — from minor discomfort to sexual disorders associated with neurotic condition.
Diagnosis of urethritis
Diagnosis of gonococcal urethritis
For the diagnosis of the microscopy of the secretions of the urethra. The diagnosis is confirmed when there are gonorrhea — gram-negative bean-shaped aerobic diplococci. The standard analysis involves two stages, the staining method of Gram, as well as brilliant green.
Diagnosis of Trichomonas urethritis
The diagnosis is based on anamnesis, the results of microscopic examination of the clinical picture. In doubtful cases, refer to bacteriological research.
Treatment of bacterial urethritis
To date, urology owns effective methods of treatment of nonspecific urethritis. The treatment strategy is decided depending on the type of pathogen, symptoms, presence or absence of complications. Tandem urethritis with cystitis becomes the indication for the combined treatment. In the period of chronic nonspecific the treatment with antibacterial drugs is updated instillation of the urethra with a solution dioksidina, and of collargol or silver nitrate, carry out activities that are aimed at stabilizing the immune system. Summary of therapy during the secondary urethritis is largely due to the effectiveness of treatment of primary disease, stricture of the urethra, vesiculitis and prostatitis.
The treatment of gonorrheal urethritis
Treatment of urethritis associated with the prescription of antibiotics with bactericidal and bacteriostatic activity. The treatment of gonorrheal urethritis careful laboratory and clinical examination of patients, treatment comprehensive: symptomatic, pathogenetic etiotropic therapy, individual approach to each patient.
Most often used to treat the following antibiotics:
- erythromycin and others.
But, of course, treatment of urethritis in men and women should be prescribed only by a doctor. Do not self medicate.
Treatment of Trichomonas urethritis
Use specific anti-Trichomonas drugs, the most effective ones are metronidazole, tinidazole and liberalis. The sequence of treatment is determined by the condition of the patient, severity of symptoms, presence of complications or co-infections that are sexually transmitted. Self-treatment is unacceptable, since it can contribute to deformation of an acute process into a chronic form.
To prevent reinfection to simultaneously treat a regular sexual partner of the patient. During the treatment and within a couple months after the patient recommend frequent drinking, exclude spicy foods and alcohol from the diet. When resistant inflammation of the chronic form is assigned to and the General and local treatment. For the past 5-6 days the patient is carried out by instillation of 1% solution trichomonacide lasting about 10-15 minutes.
The duration of treatment is about 1 month. During treatment and subsequent recovery will have to wait with sexual acts.
Treatment of chlamydial urethritis
Inconvenience in the treatment of chlamydia caused by insufficient permeability of cell membranes for a large number of antibiotics. Characteristic recurrent manifestations after completed courses of treatment. In order to increase the effectiveness of drugs of wide spectrum of action is prescribed concurrently with corticosteroids. Maximum dose of prednisone is 40 mg/day, duration of treatment — 2-3 weeks. During the course of therapy, the dose of hormones and gradually lowered until complete abolition.
The consequences of this disease may be an ectopic pregnancy before period, infertility, so it is important a very responsible approach to its treatment.