Benign prostatic hyperplasia: causes, symptoms and treatment in men

The benign prostatic hyperplasia (abbreviated BPH) is currently more often called "benign prostatic hyperplasia" ("BPH").

The initial stage of the disease is the appearance of a small nodule or group of nodules on the gland. With the course of the disease they rapidly increase in size and number. Unlike cancer, adenoma does not give metastasis in other organs, i.e., is a benign tumor. This urological disease most often diagnosed in men older than 50 years.

Prostate adenoma in men


The causes of BPH in men has not been elucidated so far. The only thing that is proved and beyond doubt – a direct link between age and presence of disease.

With men age disturbed function of testosterone production which is the primary male hormone, and starts in large quantities to produce estradiol estradiol (a hormone able to stimulate the increase in the rate and intensity of reproduction of the prostate cells). Thus, the closer the critical age of 50 years, the higher the probability of diagnosing of BPH in men.

It is proved that the following factors provoke the emergence of the disease; their presence increases the risk of disease:

  • inactivity, sedentary lifestyle and excess weight – these conditions contribute to the accumulation of excess fat in which produces estrogen, disrupting the balance of testosterone and estrogen in the male body;
  • bad heredity – if close relatives were patients diagnosed with BPH, the risk of disease increases;
  • frequent inclusion in the diet of improper foods, the abuse of fast food and convenience foods, intake of large amounts of food with spices, fried and fatty food.

The symptoms of BPH

In men, the symptoms varied. Their development and expression affects the progression of the disease, age and social status of the patient, as well as his mental and physical condition.

The first characteristic symptom of the disease is considered to be the delay in initial stage of urination, and the manifestation of false urgency to it. Coupled with these symptoms is usually observed intermittent stream of urine.

Over time the disturbing symptoms begin to grow: the patient complains of problems with urination. To urinate must strain the muscles of the peritoneum. In the cavity of the bladder, residual urine is observed, then the amount that came out because of the decline of tone of the muscle membrane of the bladder (detrusor). It consists of mutually interwoven layers, forming a single muscle. Normal contraction of this tissue is an important indicator of male health.

Treatment of BPH

If untreated at this stage of the disease, this symptom becomes predominant. This process is characterized by a decrease in the number of emitted urine from normal to very sparse stream of urine is sometimes reduced to a teardrop stream. In some cases, the voltage of the detrusor decreases so that the volume of fluid in the bladder becomes critical – more than one litre.

Often treatment is complicated by the fact that many patients consider these symptoms of BPH normal for their age and do not hurry up to consult a specialist. But in the context of subsequent problems due to sexual dysfunction men still go on reception to the urologist.

Obstructive and irritative symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia

  • 1. Irritative:

Such features are also known as symptoms of irritation. These include frequent urination or the urge to empty it urinary incontinence. Often the patient is forced to go to the toilet at night - 2 or 3 times to get up to relieve himself. Such signs depend on the severity of the disorders of the muscle membrane of the bladder.

Now science it is known that the result of age-related hormonal changes within the body greatly progresses oxygen starvation of the muscles of the pelvic organs. This condition is called instability of the bladder.

These irritative symptoms, are affecting the quality of life of men, with proper diagnosis and timely quality treatment of the least dangerous.

The difficulty is that patients may simultaneously observe the irritative and obstructive symptoms. The classic clinical picture is characterized by the presence of both groups of symptoms.

  • 2. Obstructive:

For the manifestation of the symptoms of BPH in men a great influence on the formation of the clinical picture of the disease renders the existence of chronic inflammation in the prostate. Swelling of prostate tissues often observed worsening erectile function of the penis. Chronic prostatitis often manifests itself by disorders of urination. The presence of this syndrome increases the number of postoperative complications in patients with different stages of disease development.

The possibility of accurate diagnosis is often complicated by the fact that the clinical picture is formed including pathological processes in the body that are not associated with BPH. This implies that not every patient needs surgical intervention, given the fact that patients with moderately manifested obstructive symptoms after surgery improve the condition usually does not occur.


The stage of the disease

The development of BPH specialists divided into three stages:

  • The compensated stage is usually manifested in a slight increase in the body. Changes have insignificant consequences: the boundaries of the prostate clearly delineated, palpation provokes pain. The density of the body is maintained in the normal way. The notch palpation is detected. The patient manifested a delayed residual urine.
  • Subcompensated stage. Characterized by a strong enlargement of the prostate, up to the level when it begins to exert a strong influence on bladder function. The symptoms are the following: batch and partial liberation of the bladder, bladder wall become swollen and much thicker walls of the body in normal condition, the overflow of the bladder often occurs partial urination, uncontrollable.

Often, the urine becomes opaque, the turbidity appears, and sometimes sediment. In some case, urine contains a mist of blood.

  • Decompensated stage. It is extreme degree of prostatitis. Patients present to the critical volume of residual urine, urination is extremely difficult and occurs drop by drop, the muscles of the bladder extremely weak because of the constantly increased condition. Often, this stage is complicated by the lack of hemoglobin in the blood – anemia. In the breathing of the patient felt the characteristic smell of urine.


After listening to their own complaints of the patient, the doctor proceeds to collect the medical history and begins to study the health status of the organism. The first method used in the preparation of the clinical picture is palpation and visual inspection.

For accurate diagnosis specialist resorts to ultrasound. It can be TRANS-rectally – to determine the exact problem area of the prostate, or to include the external examination of the bladder to determine the stage of the disease, you need to know the volume of residual urine.

The patient must pass several tests:

  • first and foremost, conduct a General analysis of urine and blood. It gives information about the presence of chronic inflammatory processes in the body and clarifies the picture of the overall health of the patient;
  • On the level content in the body of the PSA (specific antigen) levels in the body clearly shows the presence or absence of malignant cells in the tumor;
  • the level of creatinine. This analysis is a qualitative indicator of the state are the upper urinary ducts;
  • uroflowmetry method is a qualitative method of determining urinary problems and their causes.

Treatment of BPH in men

According to studies, the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia may be of the following types:

  • medication;
  • minimally invasive (another common name – HIFU-therapy);
  • surgical. (here there are variations – transurethral resection of the prostate, laser treatment or vaporization).

Medication (drugs)

Various medications are an effective method of combating the disease in the early stages of its development. The most famous types of drugs used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia is considered to be:

  • Alpha-blockers – their main function is to improve the discharge of urine in adenoma of the prostate and relief of pain when urinating;
  • blockers. Drugs of this type inhibit production of toxic hormone dihydrotestosterone – it adversely affects the process of its increase, greatly speeding up the process. Medications by blocking the action of this substance make possible some reduction. In some cases, this process is irreversible and steadfastly maintained.


In benign prostatic hyperplasia, should carefully monitor the diet of the patient. In addition, compliance with following rules is a good prevention of this disease, and many others. You need to often use:

  • a variety of fruits, berries and vegetables fresh;
  • products that contain fiber;
  • rich in unsaturated fatty acids, the products;
  • raw pumpkin seeds – they contain many useful for the male body's metabolism.

And, on the contrary, should be to reduce or even refuse:

  • red meat and fatty broth on the bone;
  • offal and viscera;
  • easily digestible ("fast") carbs;
  • legumes and peas;
  • canned goods, semi-finished products;
  • alcohol;
  • sweets, in particular chocolate in any form;
  • hot spices and spices.

The diet of the patient must satisfy the basic rule is to eat like any adequate person who does not care about his health.



With prostate cancer it increases in volume – to a greater or lesser extent. How has changed the size of the body, corresponds to deterioration of the patient and accordingly change his plan of treatment.

Indicators universal scale matching the size of the tumor and the need for surgery is considered to be:

  • 30-55 mm – surgical treatment is not mandatory. It is possible to conduct conservative treatment based on medications;
  • 40-60 mm in diameter – a conservative treatment can be successful, but in combination with surgical removal of the prostate, is possible with laparoscopy;
  • 60-80 mm in such a scale breast augmentation surgeries are conducted in 100% of cases.

It is absolute and can not wait to indications for surgical intervention include:

  • the inability to answer nature's call even after catheterization urethral valve;
  • steadily extensive recurring hematuria;
  • chronic or acute renal failure;
  • chronic inflammation of the urinary duct, or acute onset of such conditions;
  • diverticula of the muscles of the small pelvis;
  • stone in the bladder or one (both) kidneys.

Often in the treatment of prostate adenoma are used so-called alternative therapies. They are the same – domestic or non-traditional. Sometimes these methods give a good chance.

Among the recipes of traditional healers and lovers of the most popular are the following:

  • infusion of birch leaves. 2 tablespoons fresh or dried leaves pour 0.5 liters of boiling water, infused for two hours and take half a Cup three times a day before eating.
  • a decoction of burdock root. To do this, 2 tablespoons of roots steamed in boiling water three to four hours and drink 0.5 cups several times a day.
  • onions. Sometimes for relieving symptoms inflammation enough to eat one head of fresh bulb onion;
  • pumpkin seeds. You need to eat every day cleaned seeds of this plant.

Application of these methods should not be independent – individually they will not bring the desired result, and may do a disservice – if you can skip the self development of the disease and to skip the stage where you can still solve the problem without surgical intervention. However, when combining alternative and traditional means prescribed by specialists, the possible good result of treatment.


Preventing the occurrence and development of BPH in men need to follow a healthy lifestyle. It would be useful to take the following measures:

  • to engage in physical activity. A few minutes of exercise a day will help in the prevention of stagnation;
  • to adhere to proper diet;
  • to monitor body weight. The risk of BPH is directly proportional to the increase in the indices of body mass and the appearance of excess body fat;
  • annually to see a specialist-urologist for examination;
  • to prevent hypothermia;
  • try to urinate at the first urge, not to create situations in which the bladder or bowel is full.
Traditional medicine


The prostate gland in men to treat if the problem is detected at an early stage. But in advanced cases, when the disease long recognized that quality of life is deteriorating. One should not lose sight of the more moral and ethical side of the issue.

With timely treatment to a specialist, a proper diagnosis and adherence to treatment plan, the prognosis is very favorable.

But the discovery of the disease in the later stages, experts give a sharply positive Outlook. The disease is complicated by concomitant chronic urinary infections, formation of stones, sand and other deposits in the bladder and kidneys.