Urethritis is a chronic or acute inflammation of the urethra (the urethra). The disease can occur in infectious or non-infectious form.
Treatment of urethritis begins with identifying its causes. Only after the cause has been established, the doctor can select appropriate treatment for a given patient.
Urethritis can have infectious origin. The causative agents of a disease enter the body through sexual contact or sharing personal hygiene items.
Non-infectious origin of the disease suggests that urethritis was not received through sexual contact. The cause of the disease can be well enough handled medical tools, injury of the urethra, allergic reactions, etc.
The symptoms of urethritis
One of the first symptoms of urethritis painful urination. Appeal to the specialist it is advisable at this stage as it is likely to prevent the further spread of inflammation. If you continue to ignore the unpleasant sensation that occurs during urination, the following symptom becomes purulent discharge. In some cases, it can be observed inflammation of the meatus.
- In total urethritis is inflammation of the entire urethra. The symptoms can be similar to the symptoms of prostatitis.
- Acute urethritis can be determined by the presence of sharp pain and burning sensation when urinating. The lips of the urethra are colored bright red, there is swelling. Exhibit strong discharge from the urethra.
- After the acute forms of the disease can occur under acute. Discharge from the urethra can be significantly reduced or disappear altogether. Urine with acute urethritis becomes transparent. Can be purulent thread.
- In the absence of timely treatment of urethritis may become chronic. Patients complain of neurotic phenomena. Slight discharge from the urethra.
Urethritis are sometimes confused with prostatitis. Difficulty and painful urination is characteristic for both diseases. That's why self-diagnosis is unacceptable. Also, do not take any independent action in the treatment of the disease.
Patients who have decided to see a specialist, it is often very difficult to make a choice and decide which doctor is best to go: the venereologist or the urologist. To the venereal diseases are referred to those for whom casual sex are not uncommon. If the patient has a permanent sexual partner or at the moment no partner at all, you can start to address to the urologist.
Types of urethritis
Urethritis is divided into two groups – infectious and non-communicable. The latter can be triggered by two groups of micro-organisms: non-specific (E. coli, Staphylococcus, etc.) and specific (provoking sexually transmitted diseases). Let us consider the main types of infectious urethritis.
In contact with nonspecific pathogenic bacterial flora in the urethra (in most cases this happens during sex with a casual partner) may have a bacterial urethritis. The disease also frequently occurs after long-term use of catheter the bladder or transurethral endoscopic manipulation. Bacterial urethritis is divided into:
- Primary. Can have acute and chronic forms. Acute bacterial urethritis usually occurs without overt symptoms and is not strictly defined incubation period. From the urethra is allocated pus and mucus. There is pain when emptying bladder, burning and itching in the urethra. Possible slight swelling at the external opening and the mucous membrane of the urethra. Blood in the semen and ejaculation disorder may occur in cases where the process involved a seed tubercle in the posterior urethra.
- Secondary. Can develop in the presence of a local inflammatory process with any infectious disease, e.g. pneumonia. Secondary non-specific urethritis in most cases, is prolonged and latency. Adult patients may complain of pain when urinating. Slight Muco-purulent discharge in the morning. Children, unlike adults, rarely complain of painful urination. There redness and agglutination of the lips of the external opening of the urethra.
In the treatment of bacterial urethritis is necessary to consider the sensitivity of the pathogen to a particular drug, as well as the pathogenesis and etiology. If urethritis is parallel with cystitis, the doctor prescribes a comprehensive treatment that includes physical therapy.
If the total therapy is not sufficiently effective, can be assigned to local treatment, such as instillation into the urethra of solutions of collargol, silver, etc.
The causative agent of the disease be the gonococci enter the body during sexual intercourse. In addition, infection can occur through common goods, e.g. towel.
The treatment of gonorrheal urethritis is carried out only under the supervision of a physician. Recently treated with cephalosporins, as it was noted that the gonococcus has become less susceptible to traditional penicillin. After the treatment it is necessary to test the patient for the presence in its organism Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The patient is the so-called provocation, which repeat after a certain period of time. Gonorrheal urethritis leaves no immunity. Therefore, there is a possibility of re-infection.
Urethritis caused by fungus
This type of urethritis is very rare. The disease can occur due to lesions of the urethra of yeast fungi. In most cases, the appearance of the disease is the result of prolonged antibacterial therapy. In addition, this type of urethritis can be transmitted through sexual contact. Type of disease can occur almost asymptomatic. Possible whitish discharge from the urethra, itching and burning. If the diagnosis of the patient takes antibiotics, the doctor cancels them and replaces with antifungal drugs.
Most often, the disease contributes to virus conjunctivitis, which develops in the urethra. The virus tends to multiply in the epithelial cells of the cervix, vagina, urethra and conjunctiva. When this occurs, the inflammation of the organ.
Transmission of infection is possible through sexual contact. For this type of disease usually sluggish. Viral urethritis may be accompanied by joint damage. In the treatment you may experience some difficulties. The broad-spectrum antibiotics are usually combined with corticosteroid hormones.
This type of urethritis is distinguished by a white foamy discharge from the urethra. May be a slight itching. The development of the disease begins 5-15 days after infection. Chronic Trichomonas urethritis may be complicated by prostatitis of the same kind. The complication is observed in 15-20% of cases. To prevent re-infection and treatment for both partners. If necessary, you can repeat the course.
Urethritis in women
Contrary to popular belief that only male urethritis is a disease, the disease often can be found in women. However, given the fact that the urethra in the female body is much shorter than the male urethra inflammation in women may be asymptomatic and painless. It is easiest to detect gonococcal urethritis, because it is accompanied by sharp pain and a purulent discharge from the urethra.
If the patient is not addressed to the specialist in time, she begins a cystitis, that is, inflammation of the bladder. The symptoms of both diseases are so similar that urethritis can be taken for cystitis, because the main symptom becomes frequent urge to urinate. Causes of urethritis in women may be:
- sexual infections;
- errors in diet;
- gynaecological diseases.
Less common causes of urethritis include:
- Medical intervention. When performing cystoscopy and catheterization are not competent enough your doctor may damage the wall of the urethra or introduce infection, which contributes to the development of the disease.
- Urolithiasis. When formed in the kidney crystals and sand pass through the urethra, they damage the walls of the urethra.
Urethritis in women as well as men, has complications. In addition to the cystitis, one of the main complications is getting pyelonephritis. In addition, chronic urethritis in the absence of necessary treatment may result in deformation of the urethra, its decline. Deformation complicates the process of urination.
Treatment of urethritis in women involves 3 main stages:
- The first step is to remove inflammation of the urethra;
- The second step is to restore the normal vaginal flora, particularly if the urethritis was caused by sex the infection;
- The third stage is taking all the necessary measures to restore the immune system. Increasing the resistance makes the body less susceptible to infections.
Prevention of urethritis in women has its own characteristics:
- need to fix the problems with chair – constipation and diarrhea;
- should be avoided combination of anal and vaginal sex, and casual sex
- visit to the gynecologist should be a regular, regardless of the presence of symptoms.
Diagnosis of urethritis
In the first stage, students must identify the cause of the urethritis. You need to find pathogens. However, if from the urethra not pus, to establish the cause of the disease will not be easy. To extract the pus used thermal, chemical and physical provocative tests. The easiest is considered a chemical method: the patient takes the medicine, followed by copious pus. Thermal and mechanical methods more difficult and painful. To get the pus, the mucous membrane of the urethra irritate thin metal probe (a physical method) or thermal effects (thermal method).
There are more modern methods of detection of causative agents of disease. In many medical centers, polymerase chain reaction. This research method involves the selection of suitable biological fluid of the patient DNA of the pathogen urethritis.
Patients ever injury of pelvic organs may designate an x-ray of the urethra. With the help of contrast radiography can detect defects of the walls of the urethra. In addition, research is widely used urethroscopy, in which the urethra is injected, a special optical apparatus.
Treatment of urethritis
In most cases, for the treatment of urethritis antibiotics are used. To achieve the best results, it is necessary to consider the data in the antibiogram. This means that before the patient appoint antibiotics, the physician should determine how high the sensitivity of the patient to the medication. Selection of antibiotics is a few days after the patient was diagnosed. During these days the patient must not be left without medical assistance. The patient may temporarily prescribe antibiotics of penicillin group, that is, broad-spectrum antibiotics. Currently widely used semisynthetic penicillins. This group of drugs has a greater influence on the pathogen, while being resistant to a biological environment of man. If this group of drugs prove ineffective, the patient can prescribe more effective antibiotics. Perhaps the appointment of antiseptic agents for washing of the urethra. Lavage should only be performed by specialist.
Undergoing treatment for urethritis, the patient should follow a diet forbidding foods that increase the secretion of the mucous membrane of the urethra. These products primarily include spicy seasonings and spices.
It should be remembered that rehabilitation (psychological) after the urethritis you may not want the patient and his partner. Often the detection of urethritis partners unknowingly begin to accuse each other of treason. After the patient was diagnosed to visit the doctor can be together. The specialist will explain to the partner of the patient, the presence of inflammation of the urethra not evidence of infidelity men.
The probability of occurrence of the disease can be minimized if you follow some simple rules.
- First and foremost, you should avoid casual relationships.
- The personal hygiene reduces the likelihood of infection.
- The rejection of bad habits: Smoking and excessive consumption of alcohol.
- Regular preventive supervision of a urologist.
- Diet: do not abuse spicy, pickled, salted food.
- Timely treatment of infectious diseases of the genitourinary system.
- To avoid overcooling.
The greatest risk of infection faced by men who suffer from inflammation of the pancreas, intestines, gall bladder and some other internal organs. The probability of infecting those who frequently suffer with tonsillitis.