Prostatitis is inflammation and swelling of the tissues of the prostate gland (prostate gland). And 50% of men aged 18-50 are faced with such a disappointing diagnosis.
The disease usually develops slowly, without obvious signs and for many years brings a minimum of anxiety to its owner.
A man has been living with prostatitis for years, does not go to the doctor and allows the disease to go into a chronic form with serious complications.
When the patient nevertheless reaches the clinic, it is already too late: prostatitis becomes malignant or leads to infertility. So what are the first signs of the disease and how to deal with it?
Prostate disease in men has characteristic symptoms and requires immediate treatment. But the disease is insidious. Sometimes its signs do not appear for years.
Meanwhile, the inflammatory process is slowly developing, affecting more and more new tissues and leading to impotence and infertility.
In order not to start the disease, a man should pay attention to the characteristic signs that accompany any type of prostatitis:
- pain and burning in the perineum, lower abdomen, in the scrotum and in the area where the prostate is located;
- increased urination, a weak stream, the appearance of pus from the urethra in the form of white fibers or flakes;
- fast or, conversely, prolonged ejaculation (sometimes painful), long nocturnal erection, sexual dysfunction, decreased sex drive;
- deterioration of sperm quality, change in its quantity;
- fatigue and irritability, general weakness.
Symptoms of the disease can appear all together or manifest themselves separately; sometimes they are so subtle that they are attributed to fatigue or lack of sleep. If a man notices at least one of the above symptoms, he needs to visit a doctor.
It should not be assumed that problems with the prostate gland are the lot of people who have crossed the threshold of the 30th birthday. Prostatitis can occur in any sexually mature man, and now people 18–20 years of age are getting sick more and more often.
Causes of the disease
Prostatitis in men is provoked by various reasons:
- long abstinence from sexual life, stagnation and poor circulation in the organs of the genitourinary system;
- injuries, hypothermia, age-related changes;
- genital infections, viruses, bacteria.
In combination with factors that create a favorable situation for damage to the body, these causes cause inflammation of the prostate gland.
- promiscuous or irregular sex life, artificial lengthening or interruption of sexual intercourse;
- sedentary, sedentary lifestyle;
- past infections, chronic diseases of the genitourinary system;
- excess weight;
- decreased immunity, tendency to allergies, hormonal disruptions;
- frequent hypothermia;
- untimely emptying of the bladder and irregular bowel movements;
- stress and emotional overload;
- excessive physical activity or lifting heavy objects;
- smoking and alcoholism;
- lack of vitamins, micro- and macroelements.
If a man's body is affected by at least one of the above factors, he has a high probability of developing prostatitis. In this case, it is advisable to undergo a routine examination every six months.
Prostatitis can take different forms and be caused by different reasons. Depending on this, it is divided into different types.
A large number of varieties of prostatitis leads to the fact that in each case, individual treatment should be prescribed. You should not listen to the advice of friends and their reviews of drugs. What worked in one case will turn out to be completely ineffective in another.
It develops due to the effect on the prostate tissue of pathogenic microorganisms that enter the prostate gland from the urethra or bladder and lead to inflammation.
Sometimes acute prostatitis occurs after chronic infectious diseases - sinusitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, caries - or as a result of hormonal disorders.
Signs of acute prostatitis manifest themselves intensely:
- constant weakness, fatigue, malaise;
- slight increase in temperature;
- pain in the groin, anus, sometimes extending to the back, lower back and legs;
- frequent urination, inability to completely empty the bladder, weak pressure, stinging, urinary retention;
- lack of erection, impaired ejaculation;
- purulent discharge from the urinary tract.
Acute prostatitis is dangerous because the inflammation spreads quickly, affecting nearby organs. Sometimes this leads to an extensive abscess of adjacent tissues and vascular thrombosis.
Usually, treatment is carried out not at home, but in a hospital. If the therapy was correct, acute prostatitis is completely cured.
If the treatment turned out to be untimely or insufficient, the disease becomes chronic.
It becomes a consequence of untreated acute infectious prostatitis (bacterial form) or arises from trauma, hypothermia (abacterial form).
Symptoms of chronic prostatitis during the period of remission are almost not manifested.
A man can celebrate:
- discomfort or slight pulling pain in the groin;
- increased urination, weakening of the stream;
- constant weakness, apathy;
- decreased sex drive.
How does chronic prostatitis manifest during an exacerbation?
It is accompanied by symptoms characteristic of an acute condition. Chronic prostatitis is characterized by a wave-like course: after an exacerbation, a period of remission will certainly come.
Men prefer to wait out the acute period and forget about the disease for several months. Few go to the doctor.
The cause of infectious prostatitis is damage to the tissues of the prostate gland by viruses, bacteria or fungi.
By the type of microorganism-pathogen, the following types of infectious prostatitis are distinguished:
- bacterial (intestinal or Pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococcus, streptococcus);
- viral (herpes virus, human papilloma, cytomegalovirus);
- mycoplasma (mycoplasma);
- Trichomonas (Trichomonas);
- gonorrheal (gonococcus);
- chlamydial (chlamydia);
- tuberculous (Koch's bacillus);
- fungal (Candida fungus);
The symptoms of infectious prostatitis repeat the symptoms of the acute form of the disease.
If the disease is not treated, it leads to a purulent process that quickly spreads to all nearby organs. Such a condition, which threatens the patient's life, becomes an indication for surgical intervention.
Its cause is stones in the prostate gland. This form is found in elderly men who have refused treatment for a chronic disease.
Symptoms of calculous prostatitis are similar to those of a chronic disease, but sometimes they are supplemented with specific signs:
- pain in the sacrum and lower back that worsens after walking, prolonged sitting, or sexual intercourse;
- the presence of blood in the semen.
Most often it is found during the passage of an ultrasound scan.
It occurs due to stagnation of the secretion of the prostate or blood in the veins that permeate this organ. Congestion is a consequence of irregular sex life, wearing tight underwear, physical inactivity or alcohol abuse.
Symptoms in this form of the disease are mild, reminiscent of signs of chronic prostatitis.
Each type of prostatitis has its own consequences for the body.
For example, acute prostatitis untreated in time becomes chronic or leads to the following complications:
- purulent inflammation of the prostate gland;
- swelling of the prostate;
- acute urinary retention.
Usually, such consequences appear infrequently, since acute prostatitis clearly manifests itself, and the man goes to the doctor.
Chronic prostatitis, which is not so obvious and develops over a longer period of time, can cause much more trouble.
Complications of chronic prostatitis and its consequences for men's health:
- sclerosis of prostate tissue;
- cystitis, pyelonephritis;
- abscess of the prostate gland;
- vesiculitis, epididymitis;
- calculous formations in the bladder and prostate gland;
- renal failure;
- adenoma and prostate cancer.
With advanced chronic prostatitis, many pathological changes are irreversible. For example, problems with urination and sexual dysfunction will no longer be eliminated by simply curing prostatitis.
If characteristic symptoms occur, a man needs to visit a urologist or andrologist. The doctor makes the diagnosis "acute prostatitis" on the basis of a survey, examination of the patient, digital rectal examination and analysis of the secretion of the prostate.
Usually, these studies do not cause discomfort, but during an exacerbation they can cause painful sensations.
The study of the secretion of the prostate reveals the nature of the disease - bacterial or abacterial. With the bacterial origin of prostatitis, the secret is also investigated for resistance to antibacterial drugs.
Chronic inflammation is more difficult to detect.
For this, a whole range of laboratory and hardware techniques is used:
- bacteriological seeding of prostate secretions and urine to determine infection;
- biochemical analysis of venous blood to determine the level of ESR, PSA and leukocytes;
- analysis of urethral discharge;
- biopsy of the prostate;
- Ultrasound (through the abdominal wall) and TRUS (through the rectum);
- MRI and CT scan of the damaged organ;
- urodynamic research;
- X-ray examination.
Why can't a diagnosis be made only on the basis of the clinical manifestations of prostatitis?
The fact is that the doctor must identify not only the presence of the disease, but also its cause, in order to choose an effective treatment.
If acute prostatitis can be eliminated in 1 course of therapy, then chronic prostatitis is treated much longer. Sometimes the patient becomes a regular visitor to the urologist's office. The more correctly the treatment is selected and the more accurately the patient follows the doctor's recommendations, the longer the remission period will be.
How to treat prostatitis?
Treatment of prostatitis is a lengthy process that takes at least 1. 5 months and involves a whole range of procedures.
The key to successful therapy is a timely visit to the clinic, high professionalism of the doctor, correct diagnosis and strict adherence by the patient to all the recommendations of a specialist.
For prostatitis, complex treatment is prescribed, which includes taking anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics at the stage of exacerbation and physiotherapy and massage at the stage of remission. These methods alone will not have the desired effect.
Drug therapy lasts 3-4 weeks and includes the following groups of drugs:
- non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to eliminate pain and inflammation;
- antibacterial drugs (fluoroquinols, cephalosporins, penicillins, macrolides, tetracyclines) for the treatment of bacterial prostatitis and illness caused by hypothermia;
- immunomodulators, vitamin and mineral complexes to stimulate the body's defenses;
- hormonal drugs to eliminate hormonal imbalance and stagnation of the secretion of the prostate gland in its tissues;
- muscle relaxants and alpha-blockers to relax the muscles (eliminate inflammation of the prostate gland, relieve spasm of the urethra and bladder, facilitate the process of urination).
Especially effective are drugs that are available in the form of rectal suppositories.
They deliver the active substance to the prostate tissue faster than tablets and injections and have a better healing effect.
Acute prostatitis is treated with medication until the disease enters the remission stage. In advanced cases, the patient is sent to the hospital and up to 5 groups of antibiotic drugs are prescribed at the same time.
Physiotherapy is used as an adjunct treatment and is used only in combination with medications.
It is impossible to treat the prostate with physiotherapy devices until the symptoms of exacerbation are completely eliminated.
Types of physiotherapy:
- electrical stimulation;
- laser treatment;
- transrectal magnetotherapy;
- phonophoresis and phototherapy;
- prostate massage.
Physiotherapy gives the best results for chronic and congestive prostatitis.
But with an infectious and calculous disease, massage should be abandoned - it will only help the infection spread to nearby organs faster or set stones in motion.
Surgical treatment can be radical (removal of the prostate) or gentle (removal of part of the prostate or injections to shrink it).
Indications for surgery:
- narrowing of the urethra, phimosis of the glans penis and acute urinary retention;
- purulent process in the tissues of the prostate and in nearby organs;
- stagnation of the secretion of the prostate in its cavity due to improper functioning of the seminal vesicles;
- stones in the prostate cavity;
- adenoma of the prostate or sclerotic changes in its tissues.
What is prostate adenoma in men? This is a benign mass that is most often treated with surgical methods. It is a consequence of chronic prostatitis and occurs in men after 50 years.
This type of treatment is not the best option, since it is aimed at the effect of the disease, and not at its cause.
In addition, he is not able to regain lost health: it will only slow down the development of the disease.
Well-known folk recipes should be used only as an adjunct to the main treatment prescribed by a doctor.
- taking decoctions of chamomile, calendula, birch buds, sage;
- the use of alcoholic tinctures of St. John's wort and Echinacea;
- wearing urological patches with herbal extracts;
- the use of candles with propolis, ichthyol or sea buckthorn candles.
It is impractical to use folk remedies as the main treatment.
They will not be able to slow down the course of the disease or cure it, and precious time will already be lost.
Preventive measures are aimed at eliminating factors contributing to the development of prostatitis, and at the timely diagnosis of an existing disease.
- strengthening the immune system;
- refusal of casual sex;
- timely treatment of infectious and venereal diseases;
- quitting smoking and excessive alcohol consumption;
- healthy food, exclusion from the diet of spicy and smoked food, carbonated drinks, energy drinks;
- fighting stress;
- avoidance of hypothermia and overheating;
- wearing loose underwear made from natural materials;
- regular sports, exercise therapy (jogging, walking, abdominal exercises, squats, "birch"), long walks.
A good sex life is important to prevent prostatitis. Such phenomena as artificially prolonged or interrupted sexual intercourse, repeated sexual intercourse are completely unacceptable.
Sexual life should be regular: prolonged abstinence is unacceptable, as well as sexual arousal that does not end with ejaculation.
Also, every man should undergo a routine examination by a urologist every six months. The doctor will notice the signs of an incipient disease and prescribe appropriate treatment.
Prostatitis in the initial stages is much easier to cure than a chronic disease.